A Study of the Gospel of John

JOHN’S GOSPEL

Bible Class Notes prepared for the Adult Bible Class at the church of Christ at Beverly Shores Spring/Summer 2014 by Carey Dillinger

 

John’s Gospel – Outline

 

CHAPTER VERSES HIGHLIGHTS
Introduction
1 1-1819-3435-51 PROLOGUETHE EARLY DAYSThe Baptist identifies Jesus as the Messiah.The first followers of Jesus.
2(AD 27) 1-1213-25 Jesus at the wedding.JESUS BEGINS HIS PUBLIC MINISTRYJerusalem:Jesus ejects the traders from the temple.
3 1-2122-36 The interview with Nicodemas.John the Baptist steps down.
4 1-4243-54 Samaria: The woman at the well.Galilee:Healing the official’s son.
5(AD 28) 1-1819-47 Jerusalem Again:Trouble over healing on the Sabbath.The claims of Jesus
6 1-1516-2122-2425-5960-71 Galilee Again:Feeds the 5,000.Jesus walks on the lake.The crowd finds Jesus.Christ, the bread of life.
7(AD 29) 1-1314-53 TO JERUSALEM – THE FEAST OF TABERNACLESHis message gets a mixed reception.
8 1-1112-59 The woman guilty of adultery.Jesus, the light of the world.
9 1-1213-41 The blind man sees.The sighted shut their eyes.
10 1-2122-42 Jesus, The Good ShepherdJERUSALEM – THE FEAST OF DEDICATION
11(AD 30) 1-4445-57 LAZARUS RETURNS FROM THE DEADJESUS THE RESURRECTION AND THE LIFE
12 1-89-1112-1920-36a36b-50 JERUSALEM – FINAL DAYS OF PUBLIC TEACHINGMary’s precious flask of perfume.The plot to kill Lazarus.Jesus rides in triumph into Jerusalem.The Greeks search out Jesus.Jesus removes Himself from the limelight.
13 1-2021-3031-38 JESUS’ LAST WORDS TO THE TWELVEJesus washes the disciples’ feet.Judas, the traitor.“Love one another;” Peter’s fall predicted.
14 1-56-30 Jesus reassures the disciples.“I am the Way, the Truth and the Life.”
15 1-1718-27 Jesus, the true Vine.
16 1-45-33 Opposition (continued).The promise of the Holy Spirit.
17 1-26 Jesus prays for Himself and His followers.
18 1-1213-1415-2628-40 TRAIL, DEATH AND RESURRECTIONBetrayal and arrest.Jesus before Annas and Caiaphas.Peter denies Jesus three times.Jesus before Pilate.
19 1-1617-3738-42 Jesus before Pilate (continued).The crucifixion.
20 1-1819-30 The resurrection.Jesus appears to the disciples in Jerusalem.
21 1-2324-25 Jesus appears again in Galilee.The author’s final words.

 

 

John’s Gospel – Introduction

John’s Life The brother of James; the son of Salome, thought to be the sister of Mary the mother of Christ. If so James and John are first cousins of Jesus.

John is thought to have died of natural causes sometime during late in the first century.

John’s family seems to have been well off, based on allusions to his father’s hired servants; his acquaintance with the high priest; and that he apparently owned a private home in Jerusalem. How do we reconcile this with Acts 4:13? What does ‘unlearned and ignorant’ mean? While all Jewish children were taught the rudiments of their religion; John and the other Apostles (except Paul) were without formal religious teaching.

John was an early disciple of the Baptist; and referred to himself as ‘the disciple whom Jesus loved.” He was temperamental (Lk. 9:54-56), presumptuous (Lk. 9:49) and ambitious (Mt. 20:20-28). He is included in the so-called inner circle” along side Peter and his own brother James.

 

The Place and Date

Early Christian writers name Ephesus as the place where John wrote the gospel. It was probably written between AD 75 and AD 90 (sometime after the destruction of Jerusalem).

 

Character of the Gospel

  1. Comparison between the gospels

Matthew: Emphasis on the actions of Jesus, the relationship of Jesus to the Jewish faith, and directed towards the Jews.

Mark: Emphasis on the actions of Jesus and how he taught; directed towards the Gentiles.

Luke: Emphasis on actions and signs of the coming Messiah; directed towards the Gentiles.

John: Emphasis on the words of Jesus and that He was sent by God the Father to be the savior of the world; directed towards the church.

John further emphasizes the truth that Christ is the Word made flesh, He is the one sent from the Father, the bread of life come down from heaven, the one with light within Himself and therefore the light of men, the Vine, the I Am, and the son of God.

There are no genealogies, no mention of the Bethlehem birthplace, life in Nazareth, scenes from childhood, and no review of the Lord’s baptism, temptation, or ascension. One commentator counted over 30 incidents noted by John that no other Gospel mentions.

 

  1. The Gospel of Love

“God is love,” Jn. 3:16, The Good Shepherd, “Love one another as I have loved you.”

 

  1. The Most Spiritual of the Gospels

John examines the deep questions and brings forth the significance in the acts of Christ. He emphasizes the Holy Spirit.

He emphasizes the deity of Christ, beginning with His pre-existence. John reports that Jesus refers to Himself as “I Am.” Compare to Ex. 3:14.

What does it mean for Jesus to be deity?

  • I am the Bread of Life                             6:35
  • I am the Light of the World                     8:12
  • I am the gate for the sheep                   10:07
  • I am the Good Shepherd                       10:11,14
  • I am the Resurrection and the Life        11:25
  • I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life    14:06
  • I am the True Vine                                 15:01

(See Richards pp. 703-04)

 

John emphasizes ten key discourses of Jesus. As we study these discourses compare their similarities:

1- A disciple or onlooker asks a question

2- Jesus makes a brief, but perplexing reply

3- He then proceeds to give a wide-ranging explanation.

Here are the ten discourses and where they are found in the Gospel.

  • On the new birth                                                 3:1-21
  • On the water of life                                             4:4-26
  • On the resurrection and the life                          5:19-47
  • On the bread of life                                             6:26-59
  • On the deity of Jesus (I)                                      8:12-59
  • On the shepherd and the flock                           10:1-21
  • On the deity of Jesus (II)                                     10:22-38
  • On redemption                                                    12:20-50
  • On life while Jesus is gone                                  13:31-14:31
  • On union with Jesus                                            15:1-16:33

Emphasis on contrast in the teaching of Jesus: Life/Death, Light/Darkness, Belief/Unbelief, Truth/Falsehood, Love/Hate.


4.         John is the Most Chronological Gospel

 

John’s Gospel – Chapter 1

1:1-18 The Prologue: The Word Made Flesh

Overview: John’s Gospel clearly establishes the deity of Jesus. Other passages affirm this such as: Col. 1:15-20; Heb. 1:1-13; and Phil. 2:5-11. It is this Jesus, God from the beginning, whom John will show us in his gospel. The underlying purpose in writing this gospel was to show the readers not so much who Jesus was, but who Jesus is! We can have the same personal relationship with Jesus today that his disciples in the first century had with Him then.

1-5: Eternity Unveiled

“The Word” reminds us of the Godhood of Jesus. He is God expressing Himself through the perfect man. (Jn. 14:9; Lk. 10:22) How did God reveal Himself before Jesus came to earth?

1- In creation (v.3) see also Rom. 1:19,20.

2- In life           (v.4) see also Gen. 1:26

3- in light         (v.5) through our conscience, our inborn sense of morality.

 

6-18: Grace and Truth

The teaching of the Baptist focused on two main ideas:

1- the coming appearance of the promised Messiah.

2- the moral renewal demanded by His coming.

The Baptist presented simple prescriptions for this moral renewal (vv.11-14), the new divine morality is grace and truth. The grace of God is manifested in the sacrifice of His only begotten Son, the Eternal Word, reaching out to save mankind regardless of His previous failures. Consider the greatness and goodness of God to allow the Word to live among men, suffer and die. If the Word is God, He deserves our reverence, He cannot be taken lightly.

 

1:19 – 2:12 The Early Days

 

19-34: The Baptist identifies Jesus as the Messiah

The Baptist directs his preaching away from himself. He is not the Messiah or the second Elijah.

“Behold the Lamb of God” (v. 29) Four distinct uses of this idea found in the Bible times.

1- The Passover Lamb (Ex. 12:11-13)

2- The lamb of daily offering (Ex. 29:38-42)

3- Lamb of prophecy (Jer.11:19; Isa. 53:7)

4- The Horned Lamb (a Jewish symbol from the time between the testaments.)

When did he realize his kinsman was the Messiah? (vv.31-33)

 

35-51: The First Followers

35-42: Andrew, Peter, and probably John. The Baptist tells Andrew and John to         follow Jesus. Andrew tells his brother Peter, who Jesus renames Cephas.

43-51: Philip and Nathanael (Bartholomew). Notice parallels between the Baptist      and Nathanael. Nathaniel is skeptical, but Jesus’ ability as a prophet convinces            him. Jesus did not fit Nathanael’s preconceived ideas of a Messiah anymore than than He fit the Baptist’s.  It was when each received a personal miracle that they    set aside their own ideas and accepted Jesus as the Messiah. (vv. 34,49)

51: “The Son of Man”

Occurs 30 times in the gospels, including 12 times in John. It is used only by the        Lord speaking of Himself, in two ways:

1- in those passages referring to His earthly ministry and

2- in those passages referring to His future coming in glory (as in this verse, see       also Mt. 25:31)

The designation expresses Jesus’ universal humanity. He appeared on earth as        the brother of mankind.

 

Practical Observations

1-         Jesus is the lamb of God who was sacrificed once for all.

2-         We can confidently tell the honest doubter to ‘come and see.’

3-         Examples of how to conduct personal evangelism:

Andrew – immediately seeks his brother.

Philip – immediately seeks his friend.

4-         God’s ways are not man ways. Consider these unlikely deliverers.

Israel delivered by the shepherd boy David.

The World delivered by the carpenter’s son from Nazareth.

 

John’s Gospel –  Chapter 2

1-12: Jesus at the Wedding

The first of seven signs related by John. The purpose of relating these signs is to support the claims of Jesus and to lead his readers to faith.

Seven Signs of Jesus

1- Changing water into wine in John 2:1-11

2- Healing the royal official’s son in Capernaum in John 4:46-54

3- Healing the paralytic at Bethesda in John 5:1-18

4- Feeding the 5000 in John 6:5-14

5- Jesus’ walk on water in John 6:16-24

6- Healing the man born blind in John 9:1-7

7- Raising of Lazarus in John 11:1-45

Cana was probably located a few miles north of Nazareth. A better translation of v. 4 is: “Mother your concerns are not mine.” How many disciples does Jesus have at this time? (5, who are they?) In Eastern culture it would be a shame for the bridegroom’s family to run out of wine at a wedding feast.

“His Brethren” (v.12) Who are these brothers? Some will tell you they are only his kinsmen, not his actual brothers, yet the Bible appears to teach that Mary had at least four other sons and at least two daughters.

 

Practical Observations

1-         What is the Bible’s (God’s) attitude towards marriage.

2-         Jesus was not an ascetic. His ministry is one of joy and peace.

3-         A first miracle comparison between Moses and Jesus:

Moses: water into blood; Jesus: water into wine.

4-         The world traditionally gives its best and richest first. With Christ His gifts continue to get better and better!

5-         Would we be ashamed for the Lord to attend parties that we are giving.

 

2:13 – 3:36 Jesus’ Public Ministry Begins: Jerusalem

13-25: Jesus Ejects the Traders from the Temple

Who were these traders and what were they doing in the Temple? The priests had declared that only money minted in the Temple was acceptable as a contribution. The exchange rate to obtain these coins was very high. Also, sacrificial animals were being sold for exorbitant prices.

Many were believing in Jesus (v.23), but their faith was shallow. What is shallow faith? “A faith that exists as long as it fits our expectations.” (Richards) 6:60-66 shows what happened to some of these ‘shallow faith’ believers.

 

Practical Observations

1-         Can the Temple of God be made into a house of merchandise, even today?

2-         When corruption overtook the temple of God it was not long for this world. What will happen if corruption overtakes the church?

3-         Jesus still reads our hearts today.

 

John’s Gospel –  Chapter 3

1-21: The Interview with Nicodemus

Nicodemus was a religious and political leader of the Jews. It is interesting to note Jesus’ rebuke of Nicodemus as a teacher of the Law (v.10). The New Covenant is described and prophesied in the Old Law. (Jer. 31:31,33; Ezek. 11:19; 18:31; 36:26) To keep us from thinking the worst of Nicodemus also see Jn. 7:50,51 and 19:39.

: Four characteristics that mark Christ’s words:

1-         Solemnity – ‘verily, verily’

2-         Birth – A start as opposed to a finish

3-         New – it’s spiritual as opposed to physical

4-         From Above – from God

16-17: Eight Great Gospel Themes

1-         The Greatest Person: God

2-         The Greatest Motive: Love

3-         The Greatest Degree: So

4-         The Greatest Gift: His Son

5-         The Greatest Invitation: Whosoever

6-         The Greatest Reception: Believes

7-         The Greatest Deliverance: Should Not Perish

8-         The Greatest Promise: Has Everlasting Life

16-21: Jesus teaches about the grace and love of the Father.

1-         God loves the world

2-         God gave His Son

3-         God gives eternal life

4-         Apart from this life, all are perishing

5-         Human response to light reveals our lost condition.

 

Practical Observations

1-         No one will sneak into the Kingdom of Heaven.

2-         Our earthly birth or station means nothing; only our ‘new birth.’

3-         No one may enter the Kingdom unless they are born of water and the spirit.

4-         Why does belief in Jesus make us born of God? Because true believers are lead to a truthful and obedient acceptance of Him who is the Life.

 

22-36: John the Baptist Steps Down

For a time the ministries of Jesus and the Baptist overlap. Jesus begins to draw the bigger crowds and this causes some concern in the Baptist’s camp. John compares himself to the best man at a wedding, rejoicing in the good fortune of the groom. (See Mark 6:17-29 for more on John the Baptist in prison.) Where is Aenon?

 

Practical Observation

The true servant of God is seeking the glory of Christ, not his own honor. Teachers and preachers should emulate the Baptist. “God forbid that he should glory, save in Christ and Him crucified.”

 

John’s Gospel –  Chapter 4

4:1- 42 Samaria: The Woman at the Well

Jesus returns from Judea to Galilee via the shortest route: through Samaria. This route was usually avoided by the devout Jews whose hatred for the Samaritans was based on their Gentile origins.

In this study we want to compare and contrast Nicodemus with the Samaritan woman. Apparently she was an outcast in her own community, as the trip to the well was usually a social event, but she came alone. She was probably ostracized by the other women for living openly with the fifth in a series of men.

Three similarities in how Jesus taught Nicodemus and the Samaritan woman:

1-         GIFT (4:7-10) – Establishes the fact that God’s dealings with man are based on grace.

2-         ETERNAL LIFE (4:11-15) – Through grace the gift offered is eternal life.

3-         BELIEF (4:39-42) – Jesus was looking for a response of faith.

 

                                               The differences:

Nicodemus                                                                         The Woman

Jesus stressed that all are condemned.                          She knew she was a sinner.

Needed to see himself as a sinner                                  Needed to see herself as a
to understand grace.                                                         person of worth and value.

She needed to be wanted and cared for when no one (not even herself) could see anything of value in her.

 

So far in our study of John’s Gospel we have seen Jesus begin to unveil God and teach His followers how to respond to that unveiling. Faith came easily to men like John the Baptist and Nathanael, but to others like Nicodemus the Samaritan Woman faith came hard. Hard for Nicodemus, because he already perceived himself as being saved. Hard for the Samaritan Woman because she knew she was a great sinner. God cares enough to send His Son so that all men might become His children, worship Him accordingly and have eternal life.

vv. 36-38 – Saving of Souls

1-         He that reaps will receive his pay – God is a Master who rewards His servants.

2-         He that reaps gathers fruit unto eternal life – the souls of men are destined for eternity.

3-         Both sower and reaper will rejoice at the harvest – it doesn’t matter who does the baptizing, as long as it it done.

 

Practical Observations

1-         Use every opportunity to teach the gospel.

2-         We can use natural objects and passing events to teach a spiritual lesson.

3-         Earthly food does not permanently satisfy.

4-         You must admit your thirsty condition before partaking of the “waters of life.”

5-         The customs of our forefathers do not always follow the footsteps of Jesus.

 

43-54 Galilee: Healing the Official’s Son

After two days at Sychar they continue their journey to Cana of Galilee, where Jesus is called upon to perform His next miracle.

 

Practical Observations

1-         Christ was the Great Physician.

2-         He still is the Great Physician.

3-         “Blessed are those who, not having seen, have believed.” (Jn. 20:29)

4-         Why is it that those who have the best spiritual opportunities are sometimes the slowest to appreciate them or reject them outright.

 

 John’s Gospel –  Chapter 5

 1-47: Jerusalem Again

 1-18: Trouble Over Healing on the Sabbath

 This is the third of seven selected signs related by John. (1-Water into wine; 2- Healing the Official’s son.)

This is not the only time that Jesus clashes with the authorities over healing on the Sabbath (Mk. 3:1-6; Lk. 13:10-17; 14:1-6; Jn. 9) Remember, Jesus did not disagree with keeping the Sabbath, but with the petty restrictions imposed by rabbis based on their traditions and customs. The attack by the Jews was based on two charges:

1- sabbath-breaking and

2- blasphemy – because He put His work on a level with the God the Father’s.

The healing of the paralytic and the previous sign (healing the official’s son) both focus attention on Jesus’ claim to bring and restore life.

 

Practical Observations

1-         Jesus sought out those who needed His help. Are we searching out those we could help?

2-         Christ can heal diseases that can paralyze the heart. To be healed we must   LISTEN – BELIEVE – OBEY.

3-         Remember, many of the rabbinical laws were not God’s laws, but customs and traditions handed down by the Levites and the priests.

19-47: The Claims of Jesus

If the Jews were not sure of Jesus’ claims of divinity, they were quickly enlightened by these words of Jesus. Jesus claimed to have:

1-         Knowledge of God’s plan (20)

2-         God’s authorization for all He said and did (19,30)

3-         Power to give eternal life

4-         The right and authority to judge all men, living and dead (25-29)

 Jesus presents four pieces of evidence to support His claims:

1-         The Word of God spoken at His baptism (37)

2-         The testimony of John the Baptist (33-35)

3-         The evidence of His own miracles (36)

4-         The words of the Old Testament scriptures (39)

 

Practical Observations

1-         Unbelievers chose unbelief.

2-         Witnesses of the divinity of Jesus include: the prophets, the Baptist, the Father, His sinless life, His wisdom,              His power and His ability to give men a new life.

3-         Our reasons for living in this world are to believe in Him, trust Him, love Him,   honor Him, and serve Him                 loyally.

 

 John’s Gospel –  Chapter 6

 1-71: Galilee

 1-15: Food for the 5000

 The fourth sign recorded by John. It is the only miracle found in all four Gospels (Mt. 14:13-36; Mk. 6:30-56; Lk. 9:10-17). Note especially verses 14 and 15 where Jesus perceives that they would take Him by force and make Him King.

OT multiplication of food (13-14)

1-         Elijah – the jar of flour and the cruse of oil (1 Kings 17:16)

2-         Elisha – oil pot miracle (2 Kings 4:1-7) and he feeds 100 men with 20 loaves

(2 Kings 4:42-44)

3-         Moses – manna from heaven

16-21: Jesus Walks on the Lake – The fifth sign recorded by John.

 

Practical Observations

1-         God works through us; our duties and privileges are not measured by what we can do ourselves.

2-         When trouble threatens, the Lord will be there.

3-         When learn more about our faith in times of darkness than in times of sunshine.

4-         We cannot be discouraged by contrary winds.

22-24: The Crowd Tracks Down Jesus

25-59: Christ, the Bread of Life

Jesus’ work on earth was more than providing food for physical existence. Jesus is the giver and the gift: The Bread of Life. Theme of the message is ‘life sustained.’ Simply to have life is not enough, life must be sustained and developed, provisions must be made for daily growth. The crowd was not interested, they wanted miracles, signs, and food. Especially, more ‘manna in the desert.’  Jesus rebukes the crowd and begins his discourse on “I Am the Bread of Life.”

1-         You will never be hungry.

2-         You will never be thirsty.

3-         I will not cast out the ones who come to Me.

4-         I Am the bread come down from heaven.

Compare and contrast the manna of the Israelites with the manna of the world. Who are these Jews in verse 41?

Verses 28-29 – “Works of man” vs “Works of God.” The scriptures describes faith as a “work.” Faith is a ‘work of God’ but not necessarily a work that God does. It is a work with God’s authority that He expects the inner man to complete.

Verses 52-59 might be a reference to the communion; could they mean more? Jesus used the phrase ‘body and blood’ to represent everything we need to sustain life.

 

Practical Observation

Are we seeking Jesus for the right reasons? Why have we chosen Jesus? Are our motives pure?

60-71: Reaction

Those who took Jesus literally, instead of spiritually were disgusted by His words. They leave Jesus because he is not the Messiah they were seeking. The Twelve remain faithful. What about Judas Iscariot?

 

John’s Gospel –  Chapter 7

 7:1 – 10:21 To Jerusalem for the Feast of Tabernacles

 1-13: Danger!

The last time Jesus visited Jerusalem there was trouble (c.5), ending in a plot on His life. This time He avoids publicity. The Feast of the Tabernacles was held during the fall as an eight-day harvest festival.

The general theme of chapters 7-9 is found in 7:24; continuing to contrast light with darkness. Now begins a series of incidents that demonstrates man’s unrighteous judgment of man.

Jesus’ teachings have instigated a series of reactions that give us an indication of the moral climate of Israel:

1-         Hatred (1,7) – the leaders respond to Jesus with murder in their hearts.

2-         Ridicule (3-5) – taunted by His own brothers.

3-         Conflict (12,13) – Arguments concerning Jesus; is He a good teacher or a heretic?

4-         Fear – Many believers refused to take a public stand because they feared the authorities.

Israel’s interpretation of Divine Law was obviously not working; a higher and better approach to morality and faith must exist.

14-52: Jesus’ Message Gets a Mixed Reaction

God’s Authority Rejected (14-24) – The Law had been rejected by Israel ; they had made their own ideas supreme. They rejected the miracles of Jesus. Moral and spiritual blindness are rooted in our refusal to submit completely to God.

Moral Cowardice (25-36) – Why didn’t the leaders try to stop Jesus from teaching publicly immediately? (25-27)

Increasing Uncertainty (37-52) – The crowds and the guards sent to arrest Jesus were confused. (45-47) The leaders in their fury, break their own code of law by condemning Jesus without a hearing. How do we react when we see or hear about something that seems unrighteous to us? Do we react like these Jews did? When our response to others is condemning, antagonistic or fearful, we are out of touch with the heart of God and the morality revealed by Jesus Christ.

40-42: The Triversity of the Crowd

1-         Jesus is the Prophet (Deut 18:15)

2-         Jesus is the Christ

3-         Jesus is NOT the Christ because the Christ must be from David and born in Bethlehem of Judea. Why didn’t they look deeper?

 

Practical Observations

1-         A deep inward thirst exists that dries up our spirit; Jesus can quench it.

2-         No one will come to the living fountain unless they are thirsty.

3-         Those who drink must in turn be willing to become flowing fountains.

 

 John’s Gospel –  Chapter 8

 7:53 – 8:11 The Woman Guilty of Adultery

 In this passage the lawyers try to trap Jesus by getting Him to contradict the Mosaic Law or violate the Roman law. Jesus chose to neither condone nor condemn the woman; instead He gave her a second chance.

Now we will compare and contrast the morality of grace as taught by Jesus with the legalistic morality as practiced by the Pharisees.

 

LEGALISTIC MORALITY VS MORALITY OF GRACE
Impersonal: did the Jews care about the woman? Grace salvages the individual.
Selective: where was the man caught in adultery? All have sinned and fallen short.
Punishment Oriented: not concerned with reforming the sinner, but instead vengeance. Jesus withheld the penalty to provide the woman with the opportunity to ‘go and sin no more.’

 

There are three highlights of the Morality of Grace:

1-         It cares about the individual involved.

2-         It affirms solidarity with the sinner, not moral superiority.

3-         It seeks not to condemn, but to lead others to a righteous life.

 

Practical Observations

1-         In man’s eagerness to entrap others, he often gets caught in his own snare.

2-         Before we condemn others, we must examine ourselves first.

3-         “The merciful shall obtain mercy.”

4-         We must be sorry for the sinner, but indignant towards the sin.

12-59: Jesus, The Light of the World

Jesus uses the occasion of the lighting of the four great candlesticks to show Himself as the Light of the World.

In Jesus we have a:

  • Divine Standard (13-20) – the standards set by Jesus are the standards prescribed by the Father.
  • Divine Origin (21-30) – Jesus’ actions and morality reflect the heart of God. The roots of the Pharisees’ morality were worldly and reflected a sinful attitude.
  • Divine Experience (31-38) – True morality is putting the teachings of Jesus into practice.
  • Divine Response (39-47) – True morality loves those whom God loves.
  • Divine Claim (48-59) – The Pharisees accused Jesus of obtaining His power from Satan. Jesus claims to pre-exist Abraham, that is, He is Godhood.
    Note verse 56:
    1-         Jesus affirms that Abraham was consciously existent and ‘capable’ of see His day.
    2-         Christ proclaims that Abraham has been anticipating His coming for a long time.
    3-         Jesus pronounces His very own person to be the center of Abraham’s long expectation. (Gen 12:3)

 

 John’s Gospel –  Chapter 9

 1-41: The Blind Man Sees; The Sighted Shut Their Eyes

 The Sixth Sign. The account of this miracle gives us some insight into human suffering. Is there a direct connection between human suffering and sin? Is the individual responsible for the sins of their parents? Does God ever allow suffering on purpose? The teachings of Jesus in this chapter will help us answer these questions.

The blind man’s eyes are opened by Jesus and he saw. His mind was opened by Jesus and he believed. This is in stark contrast to the sighted men who allowed pride and prejudice to blind them to the truth. Their minds are closed.

 

  • WHO SINNED? (1-12) – The Jewish morality was simple: Those who do right are rewarded, those who sin are punished. According to this thinking, personal disasters are evidence of sin. Since the man was born blind, the disciples were confused. For whose sins was this man being punished? Jesus reveals that the blindness was not punishment for the sins of either the man or his parents, but instead an opportunity to demonstrate the love and power of God.
  • HE IS A SINNER (13-25) – Since Jesus performed the miracle on the Sabbath, the Jews used that as a means of condemning Him.
  • GOD LISTENS TO HIM (26-34) – The former blind man cuts through the hypocrisy of the Pharisees. “If this man were not from God, He could do nothing.”Can sinners be heard by God? Godly men who commit occasional sins can and do have their prayers heard by God. It is the willful impenitent sinners that do not have God’s ear. (Prov. 15:29; Ps. 66:18-19; 109:7; Job 27:8-9; 35:13;
    Isa. 1:11-15; Jn. 16:23-27; 1 Jn. 3:21-22)The former blind man gives the Pharisees a lesson in logic:

1-         God does not hear sinners
2-         God hears the man who worships God and does His will

3-         No man had ever opened the eyes of the blind before this man
4-         If this man had not come from God, He would have no power
Conclusion: a- This man is not a sinner and b-  He is from God.

  • YOUR SINS REMAIN (35-41) – Jesus identifies Himself to the former blind man as the Son of Man. The man believed and worshiped. The Pharisees refused to acknowledge their moral blindness. Is it any wonder that they could not see Jesus as the “Light of the World!”

Jesus, The Light of the World – Summary

1-         As the Light of the World, Jesus reveals the morality of God.

2-         Jesus did not condone sin, but demonstrated a new concept in the treatment of sinners.

3-         The morality of God is rooted in grace. It never compromises with sin and it never rejects the sinner.

4-         The goal of grace is to rescue the sinner.

The blind man as an example of spiritual progression:

“The man called Jesus” (v 11)
“He is a prophet” (v 17)
“from God” (v 33)

“Son of God (Man)” (v 35)
“Lord” (v 38)

 

John’s Gospel –  Chapter 10

 1-21: Jesus, the Good Shepherd

 The Shepherd – His life was his flock. His sheep knew and responded to his voice. He led his sheep and protected them from wild animals.

Jesus as the true shepherd shows:

1- the close personal relationship between Him and His sheep;

2- the absolute security we have in Him;

3- His leadership and guidance;

4- His constant companionship;

5- His unfailing care and;

6- His sacrificial love.

The lesson of the Good Shepherd has a double application:

1- The Pharisees are the shepherds, Christ is the door and only true shepherds enter through the door (Christ and His authority)

2- Jesus is the Good Shepherd and will give His life for His sheep.

As we study chapters 10-12 look for the following pattern:

1- A clear presentation by Jesus of His claims;

2- followed by a decisive rejection by the authorities; and

3- a growing determination to kill Jesus to get Him out of their way.

 

  • TRUE SHEPHERD RECOGNIZED (1-6) – Each sheep answers to his shepherds voice.
  • GOOD SHEPHERD IDENTIFIED (7-17) – Jesus places Himself between His sheep and danger
  • ONE WITH THE FATHER (18-21) – Jesus causes cries of blasphemy and demon possession, by claiming Oneness with the Father.

 

[NOTE: The teaching in this chapter occurred over a period of three months. The apparent break in the discourse is between verses 21 and 22.]

 

22-42: Jerusalem: The Feast of Dedication

 

  • ONE WITH THE FATHER (22-30) – continued
  • REFUSAL TO BELIEVE (31-42) – After asking if Jesus was the Christ and receiving the answer, the Jews reject the truth and attempt to stone Jesus. How do you understand His quote of Psalm 82:6?

 

Practical Observations

1- If someone teaches contrary to Christ, sets aside His authority, or teaches falsely, they are not a shepherd, but instead a thief. The robber’s object is to prey upon the sheep.

2- We must look past the trials to the triumph.

3- There is only one sheepfold where we can seek safety.

 

 John’s Gospel –  Chapter 11

 1-57: Lazarus Resurrected; Jesus the Resurrection and the Life

 The Seventh Sign. Again we see how the miracles of Jesus back up His claims. Even though Jesus’ behavior was misunderstood by the disciples and the sisters, the result for all was renewed trust.

Jesus was close to the family of Lazarus, Mary and Martha. The disciples were concerned that Jesus would risk His life by returning to Judea. Martha was frustrated that he had not come sooner. When Jesus told Martha, “Your brother will rise again,” to what did she think Jesus was referring? Jesus says, “I Am the Resurrection and the Life.”

The resurrection of Lazarus showed that the power of Jesus was not limited to some future time. The miracle stunned the people and caused some to believe, but the chief priests hardened their hearts even more. (See v. 50 for their solution.) Jesus withdraws from the public ministry.

What can we learn from the resurrection of Lazarus? Imagine something in your own life that you assume is beyond the realm of Jesus’ power. Read Romans 1:4. Jesus’ own resurrection confirms this power.  Nothing in our own lives is beyond His power to transform and change!

 

Practical Observations

1- In our troubles we should send a message to Christ.

2- What if Christ delays His response? Then we should not doubt that our troubles are for the glory of God.

3- He is an all-sufficient helper who “can be touched with the feeling of our infirmities.”

4- What we call death “is only a narrow sea that divides the heavenly land from ours.”

 

John’s Gospel –  Chapter 12

 1-50: Final Days of Public Teaching in Jerusalem

 It is only six days until the Passover and the crucifixion. Jesus repeats truths that He has stressed so far. Also, we will note the reactions of those around Jesus.

1-8: Mary’s Precious Flask of Perfume

Jesus is prepared for burial. This anointment by Mary not only expressed her love, but also the love of God for His Son, soon to be shared with everyone when Jesus gave up His life. How much was this oil worth? Perhaps a year’s wages.

9-11: The Plot to Kill Lazarus

Why did the chief priests want Lazarus dead?

1- He was living proof of the power of Jesus

2- He was a living demonstration of the possibility of resurrection from the dead.

12-19: Jesus Rides in Triumph into Jerusalem.

Jesus’ current popularity was based on the resurrection of Lazarus. The Triumphal Entry was an evidence of curiosity and enthusiasm, but not of faith. It was also fulfillment of prophecy.

20-36a: The Greeks Search Out Jesus

Four important spiritual principles are expressed in these verses:

1- New life comes through death.

2- A seed must sacrifice its individual identity to become the source from which many grains grow.

3- Those who hold to life will ultimately lose it. (Mt. 10:38-39; 16:24-25; Mk. 8:35; Lk. 9:23-24; 14:26-27; 17:33)

4- Following in Jesus’ footsteps of service will lead to fulfillment and the true meaning of life.

The major benefit of Jesus’ death: the destruction of the power of Satan. The people that were cheering at the triumphal entry are now jeering! God’s will for Christ does not conform to their will, therefore they reject God’s will. (vv. 42,43)

36b-50: Jesus Steps Out of the Limelight

Jesus repeats the basics for the last time.

  • I Am the revealer of the Father.
  • Belief in Me is belief in the Father.
  • Whoever believes in Me will no longer live in darkness.
  • If you reject Me, you reject the eternal life offered by the Father.
  • If you reject me, you place yourself under sure judgment. So says the Living Word!

 

 John’s Gospel –  Chapter 13

 13:1 – 17:26 Jesus’ Last Words to the Twelve

 1-20: Jesus Washes the Disciples’ Feet

 We know from Luke’s account that the disciples were arguing over who was the greatest. Jesus answers their argument by washing their feet. Peter was upset by Jesus’ action. What about this simple ritual?

1- It reflected a great theological truth: Many teach that believers are completely cleansed once and for all time (once saved, always saved), but Jesus teaches that even though we are indeed clean, we pick up daily contamination that require continual washing. Namely, forgiveness.

2- It gave His followers an example: An object lesson in humility. Humbling ourselves to serve each other is Jesus’ way to greatness.

3- It helps to show how we are to relate to strangers: Jesus washed Judas’ feet. Jesus loved His enemies!

Is foot washing a requirement of the Lord’s Supper or our religious service to Christ?

1- There is no evidence of it in the early church.

2- Even though the Lord’s Supper and the washing of the disciples’ feet took place on the same night, John makes no connection between the two.

3- Other times that foot washing is mentioned it is given no religious significance other than being tied to hospitality and humility. (1 Tim. 5:10)

Why do some commentators refer to v. 17 as a beatitude?

21-30: Judas, the Traitor

Judas represents everyone to whom Jesus offers light and life, but refuses to respond to the faith. Judas had seen all the signs and wonders, heard all the teaching, but still failed to respond appropriately. Even when he finally faced his own guilt, he did not return to Christ for forgiveness. When Jesus told Judas to depart, the other disciples did not understand why.

31-38: The Command to Love One Another; Jesus predicts Peter’s Fall.

In His last few hours Jesus will sketch a word picture of a future that the apostles and disciples (including us) would experience. Jesus is speaking of a “New Community” of which each believer will be a citizen. What will be our relationship with other citizens? With Christ?

31-35: The foundation of the “New Community.”

“All men will know that you are my disciples if you love one another.” Why is this a new command? In Christ we are members of a single family, Eph. 2:19; 3:6. Love takes on a new meaning, a new necessity. Your brother becomes more important than yourself. (1 John 3:16)

36-38 (and continuing through chapter 14): The New Community would be formed while Jesus was away. Jesus begins a discussion that continues into chapter 14. How can the community be established if Jesus was not present?

1- TRUST – When Jesus announced His impending departure, the eleven were shaken. Our first instruction is to know and to trust Jesus. Next will come PRAYER and then DISCIPLESHIP.

 

John’s Gospel –  Chapter 14

 1-31: Jesus Reassures His Disciples; “I Am the Way, the Truth, and the Life”

 We continue our discussion of how the New Community can be established in the absence of Jesus. We were specifically discussing the need for trust.

Inherent in this trust is the kind of faith that does not need to know every last detail. It is not necessary for us to know the exact location of our Father’s House. Knowing Jesus is enough. He is the Way, the Truth, and the Life. Our first instruction in the absence of Jesus is to know and trust Him.

2- PRAYER – Philip is still not convinced. The Father can be seen in the personality and works of Jesus. If the Father can express Himself in our world without being physically present, and Jesus is in the communion of the Godhood with the Father, then His physical presence is not needed to invoke His powers on earth.  If Jesus is not present how can we communicate with Him? Through prayer (vv. 13-14). This is the second instruction: Pray!.

3- FOLLOWING – ‘responsive obedience.” We will feel Jesus’ presence in our lives as we draw ourselves to His teachings and commandments (vv. 23-24). The third instruction: to Follow!

In the New Community we will have a new peace. A peace, not of this world, but one that will free us from anxiety and fear, in spite of what may happen.

 

 Jesus treats five main topics in this chapter:

1- The mansions in heaven.

“The Father’s House” – Is it the church or Heaven? Mansion means ‘lodging place.’

2- Christ, as the Way to the Father.

What Jesus does NOT claim: to have access to the Way, to know the truth, nor to be in contact with God.

3- The co-indwelling of the Son in the Father and the Father in the Son.

4- The efficacy of prayer through Christ.

5- The Comforter and His mission.

Not only is Christ one with the Father, He is also one with the Holy Spirit.

 

 Let us focus our attention on two spiritual riches brought out in this chapter.

 1- “In Jesus name” (v.13) – What does this imply? Is it making sure our prayers end with this exact phrase? To the people living in the first century (and before) your name was tied directly to your character and mission. Prayer, according to the New International Dictionary of NT Theology is to be: “according to His will and instruction, in order that the commission may be fulfilled.” What is the “anything” for which we are invited to ask?  It would be all things that can be identified with the person and grace of Jesus Christ. By asking our prayers “in Jesus name” we glorify the Father and He by answering continues to reveal Himself to us.

2- Jesus’ presence (v. 24) – How do we sense His presence when others do not? We experience His presence when love finds expression in obedience. The commandments of Jesus lead us to joy and to fellowship. We must love. If there is not enough love, there will be no obedience. Without obedience, love will die. When love dies, we will see Jesus no more.

 

John’s Gospel –  Chapter 15

 1-27: Jesus, the True Vine; Opposition; the Promise of the Holy Spiritual

 1-11: Jesus continues the conversation as they make their way to Gethsemane.

In the OT, Israel is portrayed as the vine, often failing to yield fruit. (Gal. 5:22-23) Where Israel had failed, Jesus would succeed as the true vine. The believers are the branches. The branches are unable to bear fruit by themselves, they must be supported by the vine.

  • What is “Abide in Me?” If we keep Jesus’ commandments, we will remain in His love (v.10); our prayers will be effective (v.7); our fruitfulness and service will glorify the Father (v.8); and we will experience a fulness of joy flowing from Christ into us.
  • What does it mean to be “cast out as a branch and withered?” Is this a reference to our fruitfulness or our salvation or both?
  • The positive side: If we are obedient then we will be fruitful. If we are fruitful we will abide in the vine.

12-17: The New Community Revisited.

Loving fellowship, humility, the experience of Jesus’ presence and the sense of abiding in Jesus are all characteristics enjoyed by true believers (branches). However, the Christian continually faces two dangers:

1. Conformity – Rom. 12:2; 1 Jn. 2:15-16

2. Withdrawal – Some have withdrawn themselves from society to avoid the pitfalls of living in the world. Examples: Monks, Essenes, cult communes, etc. Jesus never advocated this concept. He taught that we are ‘in the world,’ but not ‘of the world.’

18-25: Jesus has commanded us to love each another in the face of the world’s hatred.

How will the world react to the New Community founded on principles so opposed to its own lifestyles and views?

1. With antagonism – (vv.18-19) What causes this antagonism to develop? Because light shows darkness and grace reveals sin. As Christians we continue the witness of Jesus to the Father; therefore we endure the continued hatred initially directed at Jesus.

Next chapter: The second reaction – persecution.

26-27: The Comforter will come and testify

Witnessing is one of the primary themes of John’s Gospel: The Baptist; the Samaritan Woman; the works of Jesus; the OT; God the Father; and now the Holy Spirit and the Apostles.

Note that the Holy Spirit witnesses to us today through the words of the Apostles.

 

 John’s Gospel –  Chapter 16

 1-33: The Promise of the Holy Spirit

 In the last chapter we began examining the world’s reaction to Christianity in general and to the Apostles specifically. First would come antagonism, followed by persecution. Some of these persecutors would believe they were doing the Lord’s work (Paul).

1-4: Rejection by the World

5-15: Revelation of the Spirit

The coming of the Holy Spirit in the absence of Jesus would convict the world in three ways:

1. of sin – because the world would refuse to believe in Jesus.

2. of righteousness – because Jesus would return to His Father.

3. of judgment – because the ruler of this world is judged.

The application to us today is clear. We as Christians show the contrast between human ways and God’s ways by living in the world but not conforming to it. The pressure on us to either confirm or withdraw in the face of antagonism or persecution is part of following in the footsteps of Jesus.

 

 Jesus has outlined three resources for the Apostles (and us) to draw on in His absence:

1. The Holy Spirit

2. Jesus’ abiding presence and guidance

3. Prayer

 

 16-24: Sorrow Turned to Joy

The joy that cannot be taken away. It seems Jesus’ departure would cause nothing but continual sorrow, but due to the unmovable resources we just named and the glory of the resurrection, the joy would remain.

 25-33: Failure Transformed into Victory

“ For John, love, faith, and obedience are all parts of the complexus of Christian life, and one supposes the other.” (Raymond Brown)

 

John’s Teaching Concerning the Holy Spirit – a Review

 1.         As long as Jesus remained on the earth, the Apostles would not enjoy the influence of the Holy Spirit.

2.         Thus it was needful for Christ to depart.

  1. The time of the coming of the Comforter was near.
  2. The Holy Spirit would not be working through some abstract mysterious force, but instead through the saints in whom He dwells. The sword of the Spirit is the word of God.
  3. Proofs of the Spirit’s presence:

a.         Not loud claims of fleshly feelings.

b.         Whoever enjoys the indwelling of the Spirit will exhibit its fruits (Gal. 5:22) and will mind the things which the Spirit commanded (Rom. 8:5). Paul enjoins a test of spiritualness in 1 Cor. 14:37.

How can anyone claim the presence of the Comforter and then ignore God’s ordinances and not mind the things of the Spirit?

 

 John’s Gospel –  Chapter 17

 1-26: Jesus’ Prayer For Himself and His Followers

This is the Lord’s Prayer (Mt. 6:9-13 is the disciples’ prayer). As Jesus speaks this prayer He stands in the shadow of the cross, its suffering and its shame. On the verge of separation from His disciples, He goes to His Father in prayer on behalf of the disciples and Himself. This is not a prayer of sorrow, but a prayer of joy.

The prayer divides itself into three obvious parts:

  1. A prayer for Himself
  2. For the disciples
  3. For all believers

The common thread throughout the entire prayer is His desire that the Father’s purpose and plan be promoted by Himself and His disciples in whatever age.

 

Let’s examine some of the desires of Jesus as He prays to His Father.

 GLORY (1-5)– Jesus had brought glory to the Father while on earth and now looked forward to having His heavenly glory restored. What is glory? Brightness, radiance, splendor, magnificence, and honor. As in Jesus’ case, life on this earth is just a momentary experience for us. We too, should be looking ahead to eternal life with the Father.

MANIFEST THE FATHER’S NAME (6-10) – God has a simple job for us to accomplish on earth, namely, make His name known. We have received and believed the words of Jesus, now we must live those words.

SANCTIFIED (11-19) – To be set apart for a holy purpose, but set apart while remaining in the world. Jesus wants us protected from Satan, so that we might be sanctified. (Foster quote in King p. 349)

REPRODUCTIVE (20-26) – Jesus extends His prayer to include all believers. We today are included in this prayer. The New Community must grow in love and multiply. Jesus reaches out and extends His grace through you and me to rescue souls from Satan. The source of our strength in this project is our union with Jesus. As the world sees the New Community in unity with Jesus and His Father, they will know that he loves us and has sent us.

 

John’s Gospel –  Chapter 18

 18:1 – 21:25 Trial, Death, and Resurrection

 Overview: John continues to emphasize grace and life and light versus darkness in these final chapters. All of the Gospel writers report the details of the crucifixion and resurrection, but John chooses to emphasize triumph. Triumph of truth and life over the powers of darkness.

Pilate’s inability to distinguish ‘truth’ is a problem the world has today, without a sense of right and wrong the world is wavering and tormented.

 

 In the remaining four chapters the following questions will be answered:

  1. How deeply is this world entrenched in darkness?
  2. How great is God’s love for us?
  3. How great is His grace to us?
  4. How vital is the life Jesus offers?
  5. How bright is the light by which we are invited to live?

 

John gives us five pieces of information not related in the other Gospels:

  1. He names the brook Kidron, Peter, and Malchus.
  2. He tells us that Roman soldiers accompanied the Jews to the betrayal.
  3. He omits the account of the agony in the Garden.
  4. Jesus is in control of all the events at the betrayal: He makes the approach and          volunteers to be arrested, he causes them to fall to the ground, and he rebukes and preserves the disciples by His actions.
  5. He fulfills His promise of v. 9 that He will keep is own from destruction and      foreshadows the ultimate meaning of His earthly mission.

 

1-12: Betrayal and Arrest

 The context of chapters 13-17 continues…night. But now the disciples and Jesus have left the lighted room and step out into darkness, a place where evil forces are gathering. This context of darkness continues until chapter 21, verse 4.

BETRAYAL – Jesus would not permit resistance, darkness must have its hour.

13-40: Jesus Before Annas and Caiaphas; Peter’s Denial; Jesus Before Pilate.

DESERTION (12-18; 25-27) – The reaction of Peter was to be expected. However, as he follows Jesus into the darkness among the Lord’s enemies, his courage fades. As Jesus predicted, Peter denies the Lord three times.

ILLEGAL TRIAL (19-24) – The trial was convened illegally, at night, behind closed doors. Jesus was beaten and sent to the Roman authorities. Why?

PILATE’S WEAKNESS (28-38) – Even though Pilate could find no basis to charge Jesus, he submitted to the pressure applied by the Jews and for the sake of expediency allowed Jesus to be crucified. More comments on Pilate when we study 19:1-16.

THE CROWD’S PREFERENCE (39,40) – In conjunction with the festivities of the Passover the Roman government would release a prisoner. Looking for a way to save Jesus, Pilate offers to release either Jesus or Barabbas, an insurrectionist, murderer and robber. This plan fails!

 

 John’s Gospel –  Chapter 19

 1-16: Jesus Before Pilate (continued)

 The Jewish leaders are well prepared to frustrate Pilate’s attempts to release Jesus. The behavior of the Jews worried Pilate. He did not want trouble with perhaps 2 million people in the city for Passover. He also feared that the elders would send accusations to Caesar. History tells us that three years later Pilate was relieved of his post and sent into exile.

 

17-37: The Crucifixion

 Parallel scriptures: Mt. 27:27-56; Mk. 15:16-41; Lk. 23:32-49.

In these verses note John’s specific recollection of:

  1. the details of the inscription (20-22);
  2. the seamless tunic (23,24);
  3. the moment when Jesus entrusted His mother to John’s care (26,27);
  4. the incontrovertible evidence of Jesus’ death.

As we continue our examination of darkness, here are some results:

  1. a false friend betrays the Lord;
  2. a true follower denies his Master;
  3. the leaders of God’s people turn their hearts to murder;
  4. a man convinced of Jesus’ innocence permitted Him to be tormented and       crucified.
  5. that crowd that was cheering, is now jeering.
  6. a murderer was released in the place of an innocent man.

John’s attention is now drawn to the Christ. Jesus had suffered the beating and mocking, His hands and feet were nailed to the cross. Now he hung between heaven and earth, but still we see God’s grace revealed. Jesus continues to think of others. He prays for His murderers and welcomed the repentant thief with a promise of paradise.

 

38-42: Burial

 Joseph of Arimathia and Nicodemas bury Jesus. If Jesus had not risen, the Gospel would have been buried in that tomb; along with Christian civilization and hopes of the world. The future of the world was sleeping in His tomb!

 

 John’s Gospel –  Chapter 20

 1-31: The Resurrection; Jesus Appears to the Disciples in Jerusalem

1-10:   The Empty Tomb

 See Farrar’s comment in Johnson’s Commentary pp. 293-94 concerning the resurrection.

The fact that Jesus was buried on Friday evening and was resurrected Sunday morning does not conflict with the statement that He would lie in the grave “three days and three nights.” In the Hebrew idiom any part of a day counts as a day-night.

How do we explain Jesus’ willingness to sacrifice Himself for those who hate Him? The divine love and grace of God! The resurrection proves Jesus’ claim, “I Am the Resurrection and the Life.” (See Rom. 1:4)

 

11-18:            The Appearance to Mary Magdalene

When Mary Magdalene brought the news of the empty tomb, the disciples did not understand the meaning of it. See verse 9, then read Psalm 16.

 19-23:            The Appearance to the Disciples

 24-29:            The Appearance to Thomas

The exclamation of Thomas in verse 28 brings the Gospel to its climax.

 30-31: The Purpose of the Book

The resurrection of Jesus proves He is the life, now and forever. The weapons of sin and darkness: the power of death and the fear of death, lie shattered at the feet of the risen Savior!

 

The Resurrection

  1. Demonstrates that Christ is God’s Son.
  2. Proof of immortal life beyond the grave.
  3. Assurance of God’s power to resurrect us.
  4. Shows the Savior’s power over our enemies.
  5. It is a type of the moral resurrection; that being dead to sin we should be alive in        Christ.

 

The Death of Christ

“…it behooved (was necessary for) Christ to suffer and be raised again from the dead.”

Scripture and prophecy point to this fact. It was necessary for Christ to die:

  1. to demonstrate the sinfulness of man,
  2. to show the surprising love of God,
  3. to accomplish human redemption,
  4. to bring to light immorality,
  5. to achieve the victory of the cross.

 

Review the eleven post-resurrection appearances (Johnson p. 300)

 John began his argument for Jesus as the Christ, the Son of God in chapter 1, verse 1 and brings his argument to a close with verses 30 and 31 of this chapter.

 

John’s Gospel –  Chapter 21

 1-14: The Appearance in Galilee

Jesus’ resurrection is an established fact, but the disciples remain uncertain. Not knowing how to proceed, the disciples go fishing. John concludes his portrayal of the ‘night’ with the unproductive fishing trip and returns to ‘day’ with the dawn. With the dawn comes the catch of 153 fish at Jesus’ direction and the preparation of breakfast by Jesus.

 15-23: Peter’s Reinstatement

Why did Jesus ask Peter, ‘do you love Me more than these?’

Did He mean:

  1. “Do you love me more than these other men do?”
  2. “Do you love me more than you love these men?”
  3. “Do you love me more than you love these things (boats, fishing, etc)?

Why did Jesus restate the question three times?

Peter accepts his assignment of ‘feed My sheep and follow Me,’ but what about John’s assignment, Peter wants to know? Jesus rebukes Peter and points out that the direction that each disciple is to take is His prerogative.

 

 24,25: The Postscript, John’s Final Word

 In this chapter Jesus:

  1. tells the disciples to ‘follow Me.’
  2. serves the disciples.
  3. restores Peter.
  4. taught that each person is individually responsible to the Lord.

 

Review of the Peculiarities of John’s Gospel

  1. Only John follows chronological order.
  2. John emphasizes Jesus’ work in Jerusalem and Judea while the other three   Gospels stress the Galilean ministry.
  3. John’s Gospel helps us understand the New Testament was not dictated verbatim, but the Holy Spirit allowed the personality and style of each writer to show.

John does NOT:

a.         quote parables,

b.         relate the Sermon on the Mount,

c.         relate the institution of the Lord’s Supper,

d.         or tell of the Ascension.

 

John sought to present a two-part proposition: First, Jesus is the Christ of the Old Testament prophecy, and Second, He is God manifested in the flesh. To support this proposition John enlisted the following witnesses:

a.         John the Baptist,

b.         Seven of the typical miracles of Jesus,

c.         the Jewish Scriptures (the Old Testament),

d.         the Father,

e.         the Words of Jesus,

f.          the promise of the Holy Spirit,

g.         the Resurrection.

 

Disclaimer: Hardly any (if any at all) of these notes come from my own mind. I have extensively referred to the following commentaries (among others) to compose these Bible Class Notes for the brethren at Beverly Shores. Because I have not footnoted anything it would be plagiarism to pass these notes off as my own work.  If these notes come into your hands, please leave this disclaimer attached to your copy and do not sell these notes under any circumstances. Thank you.

Carey Dillinger Spring/Summer, 2014

 

John (The Gospel of Belief) by Robert Harkrider (1989)

A Commentary on John by B.W. Johnson (1886)

Truth Commentaries: The Gospel of John by Daniel H. King Sr. (1998)

 

 

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